الحمد لله رب العالمين، والصلاة والسلام على أشرف الأنبياء والمرسلين، نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين أما بعد
The religion of Islaam is a religion of noble virtues, and commendable characteristics, and dignified mannerisms, and from the greatest of those virtues in the religion – and from their most emphasized as obligations is the adherence to truthfulness and trustworthiness, and to be characterized with them in statements and actions – outwardly and inwardly.
With regard to truthfulness, then it is an obligation upon every Muslim that they be characterized with honesty and truthfulness in the worship of their Lord, and so the effect of that would then become manifest in one’s mannerism and conduct with the rest of creation, that in turn brings about mutual trust in communities, and restores reliance and assurance in societies.
Allaah, The Most High, has described Himself with truthfulness when He said:
وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثًا
((And who is more truthful than Allaah in statement.)) (An-Nisaa: 87)
He said likewise:
قُلْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ
((Say: “Allaah has spoken the truth.”)) (Aal-‘Imraan: 95)
All of the Prophets (‘alaihimus salaam) were truthful, and Allaah, The Most High, has described His Prophets with this noble characteristic, He said regarding Ibraheem (‘alaihis salaam):
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا
((And mention in the Book [i.e. the Qur’aan] Ibraheem. Indeed, He was a man of truth, a Prophet.)) (Maryam: 41)
Regarding the Prophet Isma’eel (‘alaihis salaam), He, The Most High, said:
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا
((And mention in the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) Isma’eel. Indeed, he was truthful in [his] promise, and he was a Messenger [and] a Prophet.)) (Maryam: 54)
Likewise the Prophet Yusuf (‘alaihis salaam) is described with truthfulness by the man who came to him whilst he was incarcerated, having remembered Yusuf (‘alaihis salaam) from aforetime, he said:
يُوسُفُ أَيُّهَا الصِّدِّيقُ
((Yusuf, O truthful one!)) (Yusuf: 46)
Regarding the Prophet Idrees (‘alaihis salaam), He, The Most High, said:
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِدْرِيسَ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا
((And mention in the Book (i.e. the Qur’aan) Idrees. Indeed, he was a man of truth, a Prophet.)) (Maryam: 56)
Undoubtedly, the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was known for his virtue and noble conduct from an early age, he did not engage in the immoral and corrupt practices of the society in which he lived, rather he was far removed from them, practices such as idolatry, drinking intoxicants, oppression and dishonesty were prevalent at the time, yet his upright and noble character was noticeably obvious to all those that knew him, or came into contact with him. This was such that the people of his time would come to refer to him as: Al-Ameen – or the trustworthy one, and all those in that society knew of his honesty, truthfulness and trustworthiness.
In this regard, the well-known biographer Ibn Hishaam mentioned from Ibn Ishaaq;
“So the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) grew up to become a young man, and Allaah, The Most High, protected him and safeguarded him and preserved him from the filth of Jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic ignorance), due to what He had intended for him by way of his esteem and his Messengership. Such that he came of age, and became a man who was the very best of his people in decorum, and the finest of them in etiquette, and the most noble of them in distinguished origin, and the most amiable of them in neighbourliness and the greatest of them in forbearance, and the most honest of them in discourse, and the most paramount of them in trustworthiness.
Together with being the furthest of them from obscenity and the mannerisms that pollute men, being far above (that), and kept distant from such things. So much so that his title amongst his people was none other than: Al-Ameen (the trustworthy one), due to that which Allaah had gathered in him from the affairs of righteousness.”
From the greatest testimonies of the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) is that of His saying, The Most High:
وَالَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ
((And the one who has brought the truth)) (Az-Zumar: 33)
Imaam at-Tabaree (rahimahullaah) mentioned that ‘Ali bin Abee Taalib (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) said: “It is Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).”
Imaam at-Tabaree stated similarly from the likes of Qataadah and Ibn Zaid and As-Suddee.
Truthfulness is the speech which was most beloved to the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), as he stated:
((The most beloved speech to me is its most truthful.))
With regard to truthfulness, and that which it leads to, as well as a warning against its opposite, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:
((Upon you is truthfulness. Indeed, truthfulness leads to righteousness, and righteousness leads to Paradise, and a man does not cease being truthful and strives in truthfulness until he is written with Allaah as a Siddeeq [being plentiful in truthfulness]. And beware of lying. Indeed, lying leads to wickedness, and wickedness leads to the Fire, and a man does not cease telling lies and strives in lying until he is written with Allaah as a liar.))
The Testimony of the Prophet’s Truthfulness by Some of his Enemies as well as Those That did not Believe in his Religion
Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said regarding his being the most truthful of people and the testimony of his enemies of this:
“This is from that over which even his warring enemies acknowledged for him, and no one from his enemies experienced a single lie from him – ever, let alone the testimony of his allies – all of them upon that. For indeed; the people of the earth waged war against him with an array of warfare, the polytheists of them and the people of the Book from them, and yet not a single one of them on a day – during the course of time discredited him with a single lie – not a small one nor a great one.”
Such testimonies are as follows:
Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantine asked Abu Sufyaan concerning the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), he said: “Did you used to accuse him of lying before he said that which he said?” he replied: “No.”
Heraclius likewise asked Abu Sufyaan: “What does he command you with?” he said; I said: “He says: worship Allaah – alone, and do not associate anything with Him (in worship), and leave off that which our forefathers say, and he commands us with the prayer and with truthfulness and chastity and keeping the ties (of kinship).”
When Al-Akhnas bin Shuraiq asked Abu Jahl on the day of Badr: “O Abal-Hakm; inform me concerning Muhammad, is he truthful or a liar? As there is no one here from the Quraish except me and you who can listen to our speech.” So Abu Jahl said: “Woe be to you! By Allaah; Muhammad is indeed truthful, and Muhammad has never lied!”
Many of the people of the time openly acknowledged his truthfulness, as occurred when the verse:
وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ
((And warn your nearest kinsfolk.)) (Ash-Shu’araa: 214)
Was revealed, the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ascended mount Safaa and called out, so when the people had gathered, he said:
((Do you see if I informed you that (enemy) cavalrymen will come out from the foot of this mountain [to attack], would you believe me?)) They said: “We have never experienced any lies from you.” He then said, ((Then indeed; I am a warner to you before the coming of a severe punishment.))
Sufficient as a conclusion in this regard is the statement of Abu Taalib, the uncle of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), who was one of the most acquainted of people with the character of his nephew – the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), and under whom the Prophet grew up to become a young man. Abu Taalib said to the Quraish: “The son of my brother has never told a lie.”
The Testimony of Some of His Allies and the Closest of People to Him of His Truthfulness
The wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), Khadeejah bint Khuwailid (radhiyallaahu ‘anhaa) said to him: “By Allaah, indeed you maintain the ties of kinship and you are truthful in speech, and you bear the hardship…”
Before she had married the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), Khadeejah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhaa) used to undertake in trade, and so would appoint someone to take charge of her trade to the varying regions in order to conduct business and return with the profits, from which she would pay them a share. So it was due to her having heard of the honesty and trustworthiness of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), that she requested from him that he take charge of her trade to Ash-Shaam. As Ibn Al-Atheer mentioned:
“The Quraish were traders, so when it reached her concerning the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), of his being truthful in speech, and being of venerated trustworthiness and of noble mannerism. She sent a request to him that he set out with her goods/assets to Ash-Shaam as a trader, and that she would give him better than that which she would otherwise have given to other than him together with her valet Maisarah, and so he responded to her in compliance.”
When they returned to Makkah, the takings were given, and in turn, Khadeejah had made a great deal of profit, and when Maisarah told her of that which he had seen from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) during their time together; she resolved the issue of marriage with him.
Ja’far bin Abee Taalib (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) stated concerning him in his incident with Najaashi, Ruler of Abyssinia who asked Ja’far regarding the religion they were upon, and from his answer was his statement: “O king; we used to be a people of ignorance, we worshipped idols and we devoured the flesh of the dead, and we used to engage in debauchery, and severed the ties of kinship and overlooked neighbourliness, the strong amongst us would devour the weak, and so we remained upon that until Allaah sent to us a Messenger from ourselves, we know of his lineage and his truthfulness and his trustworthiness and his virtuousness. So he called us to Allaah, that we should single Him out, and worship Him, and that we should leave off that which we used to worship besides Him, us and our forefathers, by way of stones and idols. He commanded us to be truthful in speech, and to carry out the fulfillment of trust, and to maintain the ties of kinship.”
Indeed the nature of his truthfulness (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was manifest not just in his character and conduct; but also upon his face, as was mentioned by Abdullaah bin Salaam who said:
“When the Messenger of Allaah, (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came to Al-Madeenah, the people hastened to him and it was said, ‘The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has come!’ So I came along with the people in order to see him, so when I perceived the face of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), I knew that his face was not the face of a liar.”
Truthfulness and its Opposite
Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’dee (rahimahullaah) said: “The truthful one – the enemy as well as the friend is reassured at his statement, whilst the liar – no one can place any confidence in him – not a distant one nor a close one.
The truthful trustworthy one can be trusted upon wealth and rights and the secrets, and so whenever there transpires from him a slip or a stumbling, then his truthfulness is a mediator that affords him protection from the difficulties, whilst the liar cannot be trusted upon something that is the weight of a dust particle. Even if his honesty is determined sometimes – it will not gain reliability and stability due to it.
Truthfulness is not to be found in anything except that it adorns it, and lies are not to be found in anything except that it disfigures it.
Truthfulness is the path of Eemaan (true faith), whilst lies is the messenger of hypocrisy.”
So the opposite of this is lies and dishonesty, and this is an attribute that is warned against in the religion of Islaam and is a repugnant trait. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said regarding it and of its effects:
“The strongest reason for rejection of testimony and legal opinion and account is: lies, because it is incorrectness in the actual apparatus of testimony and legal opinion and account. Hence it is tantamount to the testimony of the blind one upon the sighting of the moon, and the testimony of the deaf – who cannot hear upon the acknowledgement of the confessor. For indeed the dishonest tongue is at the level of a limb which has become devoid of benefit, rather it is worse than it. So the worst thing in a person is a dishonest tongue, and it is due to this that Allaah, The Glorified, will make the distinguishing marks of lies upon him on the Day of Resurrection.”
Ultimately, it is truthfulness that will benefit its people in the Hereafter, as He, The Most High, says:
قَالَ اللَّهُ هَٰذَا يَوْمُ يَنفَعُ الصَّادِقِينَ صِدْقُهُمْ
((Allaah will say, “This is a Day on which the truthful will benefit from their truth.”)) (Al-Maa-idah: 119)
Together with truthfulness, trustworthiness is from the most distinctive characteristics of the Prophets and Messengers, all of the Prophets and Messengers (‘alaihimus salaam) were trustworthy, it is an attribute which occurs five times in a single Soorah of the Qur’aan in relation to the Prophets, in Soorah Shu’araa, the Prophets: Nooh and Hud and Saalih and Lūt and Shu’aib (‘alaihimus-salaam) said:
إِنِّي لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ
((Indeed, I am to you a trustworthy Messenger.))
Likewise the King said to the Prophet Yusuf (‘alaihis salaam):
إِنَّكَ الْيَوْمَ لَدَيْنَا مَكِينٌ أَمِينٌ
((Verily, this day you are with us, established and trusted.)) (Yusuf: 54)
This distinctive quality was also a reason behind the selecting of a trustworthy man – that being Moosaa (‘alaihis salaam) when one of the two women said to their father:
يَا أَبَتِ اسْتَأْجِرْهُ إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِينُ
((“O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong, the trustworthy.”)) (Al-Qasas: 26)
The characteristic of trustworthiness was likewise distinguished and evident in the personality of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) even before the revelation descended upon him, he was already well-known amongst his people for truthfulness – as has been mentioned, but together with that he was known for his trustworthiness, and was referred to by his people as: “Al-Ameen” (the trustworthy one), a title which is not given to anyone except the one who has reached the utmost level of truthfulness and trustworthiness with the people. Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer stated:
“The Quraish had given the title to the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) as: Al-Ameen.”
This is confirmed likewise in an incident reported by Ahmad, when the Quraish were once carrying out building work on the Ka’bah, when it came to placing the black stone in its place, a dispute arose between the varying tribes, with some of them saying: “We shall put it into place.” While others would say: “We shall put it into place.” So they said; “Appoint an arbitrator between yourselves.” So they said: “let it be the first man that appears from the road between the mountains.”
So the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) came and they said: “Al-Ameen (the trustworthy one) has come to you.” So they spoke with him concerning it, and so he placed it into a cloth, then he called their under-tribes, and they took hold of its corners together with him – and then he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself put it into place.
Even after the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) received revelation and called to the pure religion of Islaam, those from among his enemies acknowledged his trustworthiness from aforetime, such as Al-Nadr bin al-Haarith who in the words of Ibn Ishaaq was: “one of the devils of Quraish.”
Al-Nadr said on an occasion when addressing the tribe of Quraish: “O Quraish, a situation has descended upon you for which you have not yet come up with a way out. Muhammad was a young man – most liked among you, and most truthful of you in speech, and the greatest of you in trustworthiness, until you saw grey hairs on his temples, and he came to you with that which he came to you with, you said: ‘he is a sorcerer.’ By Allaah, he is no sorcerer…”
His trustworthiness was such that the people would place their wealth with the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) for safekeeping, this being due to their knowledge of his trustworthiness and righteous character. This is clear in a statement by ‘Ali bin Abee Taalib (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) who said:
“When the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) departed for Al-Madeenah upon the Hijrah (migration), he ordered me to remain behind after him, so that I should convey back the items entrusted in custody that were with him which belonged to the people, and it was due to this that he was referred to as; Al-Ameen.”
There is a similar report mentioned by Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer wherein Ibn Ishaaq said: “As for ‘Ali; then the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) ordered him to remain behind, so that on behalf of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), he could convey back the items entrusted in custody that had been placed with him – which belonged to the people. The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was such that there was no one in Makkah who had anything over which he feared except that he would place it with him, due to what was known of his truthfulness and his trustworthiness.”
Trustworthiness is likewise a characteristic of the believers, and is something which the Muslims have been commanded to adhere to, as He, The Most High, said:
وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ
((Those who are faithfully true to their Amanaat [trusts/duties] and to their covenants.)) (Al-Mu’minoon: 8)
Shaikh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sa’dee (rahimahullaah) said: “This is universal in all of the trusts which comprise the right of Allaah, and those of the right of the servants. So everything which Allaah has obligated upon His servant is a trust, so upon the servant is to preserve them through establishing them with perfection. There likewise enters into that the trusts of men, such as the trusts of wealth and the secrets and the like of them.”
To conclude, the examples of the trustworthiness of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) are a great many, and occurred in an array of situations and circumstances, in times of ease and in times of hardship, yet the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) remained truthful and trustworthy in all such situations to the utmost degree.
Yet the greatest of trusts is that which Allaah, The Most High, entrusted him with, that of the revelation and of being His final Messenger. In consequence, he (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) indeed conveyed the message, and fulfilled the trust in the most exemplary manner, and advised the Ummah (Islamic nation), and left them upon clarity, its night is like its day, no one deviates from it except that he is destroyed.
 ‘Sidq’ (honesty/truthfulness) has a more wide-ranging meaning than what is commonly understood by it when it is understood to be; the truthfulness of the tongue, as Shaikh Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi’ee (rahimahullaah) stated: “The intent behind ‘Sidq’ (honesty/truthfulness) is more comprehensive than what is understood by many of the people, since many people understand truthfulness to only be the truthfulness of utterance. However it is more comprehensive than that, Allaah, The Glorified and Most High, says in His Noble Book:
لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
((Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east and the west, but righteousness is [the quality of] the one who believes in Allaah , and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Prophets, and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes the prayer and gives the zakaat; and [those who] fulfill their covenant when they pledge; and [those who] are patient in poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting [in battle]. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the Muttaqoon [pious/fearful ones].)) (Al-Baqarah: 177)
Those that fulfill these qualities; that they are believers in Allaah, and in the Last Day, and in the Angels, and in the Book, and in the Prophets. Then He mentioned affairs which are affairs of physical action, whoever fulfills these qualities, then he is the one who is considered to be Saadiq (truthful).” (Refer to an audio lecture of the Shaikh entitled: As-Sidq Manjaa.)
Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) stated similar regarding this when he said after quoting the same aayah from Soorah al-Baqarah; “And this is clear in that truthfulness is by way of actions that are outward and inward, and that truthfulness is the station of Islaam and Eemaan.” (See: Madaarij as-Saalikeen vol 2 p.258)
 Seerah Ibn Hishaam vol 1 p.197
 Jaami’ al-Bayaan vol 24 p.3
 Jaami’ al-Bayaan vol 24 p.3
 Part of a hadeeth reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.2152) and Abu Dawood (no.2693)
 Point of benefit: in explanation of the understanding of the forms of truthfulness, Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned: “Truthfulness in statements: is the evenness of the tongue upon the statements – like the evenness of the ears of corn upon its stalk.
Truthfulness in actions: is the evenness of the actions upon the command and in following through, like the evenness of the head upon the body.
Truthfulness in the circumstances: is the evenness of the actions of the heart and the limbs upon sincerity, and vacating one’s capability, and to expend one’s energy.” (See: Madaarij as-Saalikeen vol 2 p.258)
 Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.5743) and Muslim (no.2607), the wording above is that of Muslim.
 Jalaa al-Afhaam p.199
 Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.2941). Note; Abu Sufyaan would later go on to accept the religion of Islaam, this occurred in the eighth year of the Hijrah in the year of the conquest of Makkah, radhiyallaahu ‘anhu.
 Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.7) Point of note: Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said of these questions which Heraclius posed: “He asked them (the Makkans) of the factors of dishonesty and their signs – yet he found them negative; nonexistent. He asked them regarding the signs of honesty – and moreover found them positively confirmed.” (Sharh al-Asbahaaniyyah p.551)
 Jaami al-Bayaan vol.11 p.333 and Tafseer al-Qur’aan al-Adheem (Tafseer Ibn Katheer) vol 3 p.172
 Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.4971) and Muslim (no.355) – refer to these for the full hadeeth.
 Part of a hadeeth reported by Abu Ya’laa in his Musnad (no.6804) and At-Tabaraanee in Mu’jam al-Kabeer (17/192/511) and Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in Al-Mataalib al-‘Aaliyah (no.4227) and others. In Al-Mataalib al-‘Aaliyah Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar declared its chain of narration to be Hasan (sound), its chain of narration was likewise declared Hasan by Shaikh Al-Albaanee in As-Saheehah (see his discussion under hadeeth no.92).
 Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.4953) and Muslim (no.401) and the wording above is that of Al-Bukhaaree.
 Al-Kaamil fee at-Ta’reekh vol 1 p.569
 Refer to Al-Kaamil fee at-Ta’reekh vol 1 p.569
 Seerah Ibn Hishaam vol 1 p.358-359. It is reported by Ahmad (no.1740), and Shaikh Al-Albaanee said its chain of narration is Saheeh in Haashiyah Fiqh as-Seerah (p.121).
 Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said: “And the truthful one; Allaah grants him dignity and loftiness, so whoever sees him will stand in awe of him, and will love him.” (See: Jaami al-Adaab vol 4 p.207, for the original reference refer to: I’laam al-Muwaqi’een vol 1 p.131)
 Reported by Ibn Maajah (no.1334 and 3251) and At-Tirmidhee (no.2485) and Ad-Daarimee in his Sunan (no.1460) and others. It was declared Saheeh (authentic) by Shaikh Al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhee (no.2485).
 Majmu’ Fataawa vol 23 p.245
 Jaami al-Adaab vol 4 p.207, for the original reference refer to: I’laam al-Muwaqi’een vol 1 p.131.
 Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) mentioned the various forms of trusts and trustworthiness, from them is that which can be found in the issue of money and wealth, and from them is that which can be found in the issue of rulership, and from them is that which can be found in the issue of the rights of Allaah, and that which can be found in the rights of mankind. (Refer to Sharh Riyadh as-Saaliheen vol 2 p.462-463 for a more detailed discussion of this.)
 Soorah Shu’araa ayahs: 107, 125, 143, 162 and 178
 Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah vol 3 p.487
 As hadeeth number 15504 and it was declared Hasan (sound) by Shaikh Al-Albaanee in Haashiyah Fiqh as-Seerah (p.84)
 Seerah Ibn Hishaam vol 1 p.319-320
 Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’ad vol 3 p.22
 See: Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah vol 4 p.445. For the original reference refer to Seerah Ibn Hishaam vol 1 p.485.
 Tayseer al-Kareem ar-Rahmaan p.548