The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) During Ramadhaan:
Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said in Zaadul Ma’aad 2/30 regarding the obligation of fasting in Ramadhaan: “And its obligation began in the second year after the Hijrah, so that when the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) had died; he had fasted nine Ramadhaans.”
Imaam An-Nawawee (rahimahullaah) stated similar in his Majmoo’ 6/250 when he said: “The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) fasted in the month of Ramadhaan for nine years, since it was made obligatory in the month of Sha’baan in the second year after the Hijrah. So the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) died in the month of Rabee’ Al-Awwal in the year eleven after the Hijrah.”
The second year after the Hijrah was also the year in which the battle of Badr took place regarding which Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (rahimahullaah) said in Talkheesul Habeer 4/89:
“As for the battle of Badr having occurred in the year 2H, then that is unanimously agreed upon by the people of history such as Ibn Ishaaq and Moosaa ibn ‘Uqbah and Abul-Aswad and other than them, they agreed also – that it occurred during the month of Ramadhaan.”
Ibn Al-Qayyim (rahimahullaah) said as is found in Mukhtasar Zaadul Ma’aad p.135: “And from his guidance (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) during the month of Ramadhaan was that of being plentiful in a variety of forms of worship. Likewise Jibreel would read/revise the Qur’aan with him in Ramadhaan, and he would be plentiful in giving in charity and in showing excellence and in the recitation of the Qur’aan and in prayer and in dhikr (remembrance of Allaah) along with making i’tikaaf. He would particularize it with varying forms of worship with that which he would not particularize in other than it.”
Regarding the character and conduct of the The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) during the month of Ramadhaan, then it is summed up in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas who said:
((The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was the most generous of all the people, and his generosity used to be more so in Ramadhaan when Jibreel would meet him. He used to meet him every night during Ramadhaan in order to revise the Qur’an with him. Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to be more generous in doing good than the fair wind sent forth. ))
The Companions and Those After Them During Ramadhaan:
Al-Baihaqee reports in As-Sunan Al-Kubraa 2/494 with his chain of narration from Naafi’ who said: that ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallaahu ‘anhumaa) would stand (and pray) in his home during the month of Ramadhaan. Then when the people would go out from the Masjid, he would take hold of a container of water and would then go out to the Masjid of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). Then he would not exit it until he had prayed the Morning Prayer.
Ibn Rajab said in Lataa-if al-Ma’aarif p.233: “Ibn ‘Umar used to fast and would not break his fast except with the poor people, so if his family would prevent him from them then he would not eat that night. He was such that if a person came asking for anything whilst he was eating, he would take his share of food and stand up and give it to the one who had asked. So he would return to find that his family had eaten what had remained in the bowl, and so he would arise in the morning and fast and had not eaten anything.”
Al-Baihaqee reports in As-Sunan Al-Kubraa 2/497 with his chain of narration from Maalik who said from ‘Abdullaah bin Abee Bakr who said: I heard my father say: “We used to depart from the Qiyaam (night prayer) during Ramadhaan, so the servants would hasten with preparing the food for fear of the nearness of the time of Fajr.”
Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadi mentioned in his Ta’reekh 2/12: When the first night of the month of Ramadhaan would enter, the companions of Muhammad bin Isma’eel Al-Bukhaaree would gather with him, so he would pray along with them and would recite twenty ayaat in each rak’ah and would continue this until he would complete the Qur’aan. In the time before daybreak he would recite between a third and half of the Qur’aan, he would complete it (the Qur’aan) in this way before daybreak every three nights. During the day he would recite and complete it – every day;and his completion would be at the time of breaking his fast each evening and he would say: “with every completion there is a supplication which is answered.”
Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdaadi mentioned also 10/144: Ibn Al-Labbaan encountered the month of Ramadhaan whilst he was in Baghdad in the year four hundred and twenty seven. He used to live in the ‘Darb Al-Aajur’ district near the ‘Nahr Taabiq’ canal. So he would pray the taraweeh prayer along with the people for the whole of the month. Yet every night when he would complete his prayer with the people, he would remain standing in the Masjid praying until Fajr time. Once he had prayed the Fajr prayer; he would teach his companions, and I heard him say: “I will not lie on my side in order to sleep this month – not in the day and nor in the night.” His specified time devoted to worship each night in that which he would pray by himself would consist of a seventh of the Qur’aan, he would carefully recite in a slow and pleasant tone. I never saw anyone with better and more excellent recitation than him.
A Final Word Regarding Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
Al-Bazzaar – the student of Shaikh ul Islaam mentioned regarding the effect of Shaikh ul Islaam’s recitation and prayer upon the people when he led them in the night prayer during Ramadhaan when he said:
“He used to lead the people for the Taraweeh prayer, so he would elevate his voice during the recitation out of khushoo’ (humility and attentiveness) and tender graciousness which would capture the hearts of the gathering…” (Al-Madaakhil ilaa Athaar Shaikhil Islaam p.20)
It is mentioned in the books of history that when Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah returned from performing the Hajj at the age of thirty two, his enemies began to incite those in authority to imprison him and to have him detained. He was imprisoned on behalf of his enemies due to upholding the beliefs and madhab of Ahlus-Sunnah; as a result he was imprisoned on seven occasions during his life, four times in Egypt in Cairo and Alexandria and three times in Damascus. The total amount of time he spent imprisoned during his life came to just over five years, yet Shaikh ul Islaam endured these and other trials with patience and steadfastness – just as it was endured by the people of the Sunnah before him.
As a result of his time in prison it is clear that he spent SIX Ramadhaans in prison:
The first Ramadhaan was during his imprisonment from 26th Ramadhaan 705H – 23rd Rabee’ Al-Awwal 707H, in this incarceration he saw the last days of Ramadhaan of the year 705H as well as the entire month of Ramadhaan during the year 706H whilst in prison.
The second Ramadhaan was during his imprisonment in Alexandria (Egypt) from 1st Rabee’ Al-Awwal – 8th Shawwaal 709H.
The third Ramadhaan was during his imprisonment from 12th Rajab 720H – 10th Muharram 721H.
The fourth and fifth and sixth Ramadhaans were during his final imprisonment in the citadel of Damascus and during which he died (rahimahullaah). This was from 6th Sha’baan 726H – 20th Dhul-Qa’dah 728H.
And Allaah Knows best.
 Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “In this month occurred the battle of Badr Al-Kubraa by way of which Allaah gave honour to Islaam and its people and debased shirk and its people, and its day was entitled: ‘Yaum Al-Furqaan’ (the Day of the Criterion).” (See Majmoo’ Fataawaa 19/17)
 Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.6) and Muslim with similar wording (no.5964) and others.
 Regarding completing the recitation of the Qur’aan in less than three days Ibn Rajab (rahimahullaah) said in his Lataa-if al-Ma’aarif p.237: “Indeed there is a report that the recitation of the Qur’an should not be completed in less than three days by those who recite it constantly in such a way. As for during virtuous times such as the month of Ramadhaan, especially during the nights wherein laylatul-Qadr is being sought or whilst in virtuous locations such as Makkah – for those who enter it and are not from its people (residents), then it is recommended that the recitation of the Qur’an be plentiful in order to gain benefit from the virtue of the time and place. This is the opinion of Ahmad (bin Hanbal) and Ishaaq (bin Raahawaih) and others among the distinguished Imaams.”
 His student Al-Haafidh Ibn ‘Abdil-Haadi (rahimahullaah) mentioned as is found in ‘Uqood Ad-Duriyyah p.285 how the Shaikh spent his time in prison on one such occasion when he said: “When he entered the prison he found the inmates busy in a range of diversionary amusements, they would occupy themselves by way of it to distract themselves of their condition, such as in playing chess and backgammon and the likes of that which would waste the performance of the daily prayers. So the Shaikh forbade them from that severely and commanded them to adhere to the daily prayers and to pay attention with regards to Allaah by performing righteous actions and in making tasbeeh and seeking forgiveness and making supplication. He also taught them from the Sunnah that which they were in need of with regards to; and he encouraged them with performing good deeds and prompted them upon that. This was until the incarceration was such that it consisted of the preoccupation with knowledge and the religion better than that of a small Mosque or a hospice (for the asylum of the poor) and a school. So those under incarceration, once they were released – they chose to reside with him; and so those that would come and go from him increased – such that the prison became filled due to them.”
 The dates are taken from: Al-Madaakhil ilaa Athaar Shaikhil Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah p.31-39.