Fasting and the Rulings of Menstrual, Postnatal, and Irregular Bleeding

الحمد لله رب العالمين، وصلى الله وسلم على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وأصحابه أجمعين، أما بعد

 

Introduction

 

The natural bleeding which comes upon a woman is of three types:[1]

  1. The menstrual period.
  2. Postnatal bleeding.
  3. Irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding.

Mentioned in this article are the rulings for each of these types of bleeding in relation to fasting in particular, though other important issues and regulations associated with this topic are also discussed.

 

Menstruation and its Rulings With Regards to Fasting

 

The definition of menstruation as mentioned by Shaikh Zaid al-Madkhali (rahimahullaah) is: “It is the blood which exits the front part of the woman at the time of her sound health, naturally and routinely not being due to child-birth, nor defloration of virginity.”[2]

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said concerning it: “It is natural bleeding which comes upon a woman on known days once she reaches puberty, it was created as such by Allaah, The Most High, due to the wisdom of providing offspring, and so due to this, the pregnant woman does not menstruate in most cases. This is because this blood; with the permission of Allaah, turns into a fetus.”[3]

Then with regards to performing the acts of worship of prayer and fasting during menses, then its forbiddance is made clear in the hadeeth of Abee Sa’eed (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) who said that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

((Is it not that – if she menstruates; then she does not pray nor does she fast?)) We said: ‘indeed.’ He said: ((Then that is from the deficiency in her religion.))[4]

 

Imaam an-Nawawee (rahimahullaah) stated: “The Muslims are unanimous upon the fact that the menstruating woman and the one in a state of post-natal bleeding – the prayer and the fasting are not in any way obligated upon them both.”[5]

The Jurists are in agreement upon the forbiddance of fasting for the menstruating woman without exception[6] – whether it is obligatory or supererogatory, as well as its being incorrect from her due to the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

((Is it not that – if she menstruates; then she does not pray nor does she fast?)) We said: ‘indeed.’ He said: ((Then that is from the deficiency in her religion.))[7]

 

Therefore if the woman sees blood at a time during the day, then her fast is annulled, and Ibn Jareer and An-Nawawee and other than them have cited consensus upon that.[8]

The Jurists are likewise in agreement over the obligation of making up (for missed fasts) for Ramadhaan upon her, due to the statement of ‘Aaishah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhaa) regarding the menses:

“That used to come upon us, so we were ordered to make up the fasts, and we were not ordered to make up the prayers.”[9]

 

At-Tirmidhee and Ibn Al-Mundhir and Ibn Jareer and other than them have reported consensus upon that.[10]

In the text of Zaad al-Mustaqni’ there appears the saying of the author: “and the menstruating woman makes up the fast, not the prayer.” In explanation of this statement Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “By way this statement we learn four rulings:

The First: Is that she does not fast

The Second: Is that she does not pray

The Third: Is that she makes up for the fasting

The Fourth: Is that she does not make up for the prayer

As for the first and second, then we learn them through proof of compliance and indication, because from that which is essential in his saying: ‘makes up’ is that she should not yet done so.

As for the third and the fourth, then the proof upon it is as follows:

  1. When the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was asked by the women: ‘And what is the deficiency in our religion and our intellect O Messenger of Allaah?’ He said: ((Is it not that – if she menstruates; then she does not pray nor does she fast?)) We said: ‘indeed.’ He said: ((Then that is from the deficiency in her religion.))[11]
  2. ‘Aaishah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhaa) was asked: ‘Why is it that the menstruating woman has to make up for the fast, and does not make up for the prayer?’ She said: “That used to come upon us in the era of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), so we were ordered to make up the fasts, and we were not ordered to make up the prayers.” [12]
  3. The consensus stands upright upon that.”[13]

 

The Wisdom Behind the Menstruating Woman not Fasting

 

Shaikh ul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said: “Indeed, the legislation has come with justice in all things, and so the excessiveness in the acts of worship through injustice have been forbidden by The Legislator, and He has commanded with prudence in the acts of worship. So due to this He has commanded with hastening in taking the Iftaar (meal for breaking the fast) – as well as delaying the Suhoor (pre-dawn meal); and has prohibited Wisaal (continuous fasting)…

…The blood that flows out with the menstruation, in it is the emergence of blood, and so it is possible for the menstruating woman to fast in other than the times of blood-flow in a state in which her blood is not flowing from her. Thus her fast in that state will be a moderately proportionate fast, with no blood coming out during it which then gives strength to the body – which is its fundamental constituent.

Whilst her fast during menstruation necessitates that within it her blood comes out, which is her material constituent, and that imposes a diminution of her body and a weakness upon it, as well as her fast being extracted from moderate proportionality. She has therefore been commanded to fast in other than the times of menstruation.”[14]

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “The scholars (rahimahumullaah) have deduced some wisdom for that, so they say; that fasting does not come in the year except one time, whilst the prayer comes repeatedly much. So the obligation of fasting upon her is easier, also; because if she did not make up (for missed fasts), she would not attain any fasting.

As for the prayer, then it repeats itself upon her much, therefore if we compelled her with making up for it, then that would be difficult upon her. Likewise she will not be devoid of prayer due to its reoccurrence (i.e. regularity), so if it is not procured for her in the initial part of the month; it is procured for her at its end.”[15]

 

How Does a Woman Know that her Menstrual Period has Ended?

 

Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (hafidhahullaah) mentions: “What is it that through which the woman knows that her menstrual period has come to an end?

She knows that with the cessation of the bleeding, and that is through two signs:

The first sign: Is the appearance of a white discharge; it is a white fluid that follows the menstrual period and resembles gypsum liquid, and it may be without the white colour. Its colour may differ according to the differing circumstances of the women.[16]

The second sign: The dryness and it is that she enters a cloth (tissue) or some cotton into her vagina then takes it out and it is dry, it has nothing on it, not by way of blood nor any brown or yellow discharge.”[17]

 

The Ruling of the Yellow and Brown Discharge

 

A yellow or brown discharge may appear before a menstrual period or during it or after it. In regard to the rulings of this discharge, then Shaikh Al-Fawzaan mentions:

“If a brown or yellow discharge comes out from a woman at the time of her usual routine (menstrual period), then she should consider them both to be from the menses, they take its aforementioned rulings. If they appear from the woman in other than the time of the usual routine, then she should not consider them as anything, and should deem herself as being in a state of purification due to the saying of Umm ‘Atiyyah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhaa):

‘We never considered the brown and yellow discharge as anything, after having become cleansed.’[18]/[19]

 

 

The Yellow and Brown Discharge Which has No Relation to the Menstruation Does Not Prevent the Woman from Prayer and Fasting

 

A question was raised regarding a brown discharge which occurs over five days before the actual menstrual period begins which then lasts for eight days, is therefore the prayer and fasting obligatory on this person during the initial five days?

Shaikh bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) said: “If the five days in which the brownness occurs are unconnected to the bleeding, then it is not from the menstruation, upon you is to pray within it and fast and you should perform wudhu for every prayer because it is of the ruling of urine, and does not hold the ruling of menses. Therefore it does not prevent one from prayer nor fasting, however it necessitates performing wudhu every time until it ceases – such as irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding.

As for if these five (days) are connected to the menstruation, then it is altogether considered to be from the menstruation, and counted to be from the routine, and upon you is to not pray within them nor to fast.

Likewise if this brown or yellow discharge occurs after the purification from the menses, then it is not considered menses, rather its ruling is the ruling of irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding. Upon you is to wash the area each time, and perform wudhu and pray and fast, and it is not considered from the menses.”[20]

 

Postnatal Bleeding and its Rulings with Regard to Fasting

 

The definition of postnatal bleeding: It is the blood which flows out due to child-birth, and its ruling is the ruling of the menstrual period in that which it permits and forbids and obligates and that which falls away.[21] Its utmost duration is forty days, and there is no restriction to its minimum flow.[22]

Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi (rahimahullaah) said: “The ruling of the one who has postnatal bleeding is the ruling of the one who is menstruating in all of that which is forbidden upon her, as well as that which falls away in her regard. We do not know of any difference in this.”[23]

Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee (rahimahullaah) said: “Consensus has come about from the scholars – as is mentioned in Al-Bahr – that postnatal bleeding is like the menstrual period in all of that which is allowed and forbidden and is disliked and recommended.”[24]

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “It (postnatal bleeding) is like the menstrual period in that which it forbids, such as fasting and prayer and sexual relations and the Tawaaf (circumambulation) and divorce.”[25]

 

If the Bleeding Stops Within the Forty Days and She Fasts, but then it Starts Again Before the End of the Forty Days – Should She Stop Fasting?

 

Shaikh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) said: “If the woman who has postnatal bleeding becomes cleansed within the forty days, so she fasts the days, then the bleeding returned within the forty days, then her fast was correct. Upon her is to leave prayer and fasting during the days in which the bleeding has returned – as it is postnatal bleeding, until she becomes cleansed or completes the forty days.

When she completes the forty days it is obligatory upon her to wash even if she does not see that she has become cleansed as the forty days are the end of postnatal bleeding in that which is correct in the two opinions of the scholars. So upon her thereafter is to perform the wudhu at the time of each prayer until the bleeding ceases, just as the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) commanded with that to the one who had irregular bleeding.”[26]

Shaikh Saalih Al-Fawzaan (hafidhahullaah) said: “If the bleeding ceases from the one who has postnatal bleeding before the forty days, and so she bathes and prays and fasts, then the bleeding returns before the end of the forty days, that which is correct is that it is considered to be postnatal bleeding. She should abstain (withhold) in that, and that which she fasted during the partitioning period of her having been cleansed, then it is correct and she does not need to make up for them.”[27]

 

Any Bleeding Which Continues After the Forty Day Period

 

The permanent committee of scholars stated:

“If the woman sees purification before the completion of the forty days, then she should bathe and pray and fast, and it is permissible for her husband to have sexual relations with her. Yet if the bleeding continues with her after the forty days, then she should consider herself upon the ruling of purification, because the forty days are the end of the postnatal period in that which is correct in the two opinions of the scholars. So blood which is with her after the forty days is considered to be abnormal/spoiled blood, its ruling is the ruling of the blood of Istihaadhah (irregular bleeding). Except if it corresponds with her (menstrual) routine, in which case she should consider it as a menstrual period, she leaves of the prayer and the fasting, and it is forbidden for her husband to have sexual relations with her.”[28]

 

Irregular (Non-Menstrual) Bleeding and its Rulings with Regard to Fasting and Other Acts of Worship

 

Its definition: It is the flowing of blood in other than its usual time by way of effusion of blood from a vein.[29]

Imaam an-Nawawee (rahimahullaah) said with regards to the ruling of the one who has irregular (non-menstrual bleeding): “As for the prayer and the fasting and the I’tikaaf and reciting the Qur’aan and touching the Mus-haf and carrying it and making the prostration of recitation and the prostration of thanks as well as the obligations of worship which are upon her; then in all of that she is like the one who is in a state of purity – and this is unanimously agreed upon.”[30]

Shaikh bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) stated: “The Mustahaadhah (the one who has irregular bleeding); she is the one who has bleeding which is not fitting to be a menstrual period nor post-natal bleeding, her ruling is the ruling of the women who are in a state of purity. She should fast and pray and she is permissible for her husband, and she should perform the wudhu for each prayer such as those who have a continuous cause for ritual impurity, from urine or wind or other than them. She should guard against the blood with some cotton (pad) or its like so that it should not soil her body or her garments.”[31]

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen explained in further detail:

As for the rulings of irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding; then they are like the rulings of the state of purity, so there is no difference between the one who has irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding and those in a state of purity – except in that which follows:

Firstly: The obligation of performing wudhu upon her for every prayer, due to the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaish:

((Then perform wudhu for every prayer))

 

– Reported by Al-Bukhaaree in the chapter of washing the blood. The meaning of that is that she should not perform the wudhu for the prayer which has a set timing except after its time has come in. As for if the prayer does not have a set timing, then she should perform the wudhu for it when there is the decision to carry it out.

Secondly: If she intends to perform the wudhu, then she should wash off the traces of blood, and binds a cotton pad over the vagina to contain the blood, due to the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to Hamnah (bint Jahsh):

((I prescribe cotton for you, for it will indeed take away the blood.)) She said: ‘there is more than that’ he said: ((Then take a cloth)) she said: ‘it is more than that, so he said: ((Then use a bridle restraint.)) – The hadeeth.[32]

 

Whatever comes out after that then will not harm due to the saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaish:

((Avoid the prayer during the days of your menses, then wash and perform wudhu for every prayer, then pray, even if the blood drops onto the mat.)) Reported by Ahmad and Ibn Maajah.[33]

 

Thirdly: Sexual intercourse; the scholars have differed over its permissibility if one does not fear sin (committing illicit intercourse) by leaving it off, and what is correct is its outright permissibility.”[34]

 

It is clear therefore that the one who has irregular bleeding – if this bleeding occurs after a menstrual period, the she is to bathe once due to the ending of her menses, thereafter she washes any blood away and performs wudhu for every prayer in its time.

Shaikh Muhammad bin Ibraheem Aal-ash-Shaikh (rahimahullaah) said: “It is obligatory upon the Mustahaadhah (the one who has irregular [non-menstrual] bleeding), that she bathes a single bath after the end of the duration of her menstrual period, and it is not obligatory upon her to bathe after that, until the time comes in (for the prayer) – and then upon her is to make wudhu for ever prayer…

Imaam an-Nawawee mentioned in his explanation of Muslim: ‘Know that it is not obligatory upon the Mustahaadhah to bathe for anything from the prayers, nor in a time from the timings except once at the time that her menses ends. The majority of the scholars have mentioned this from the Salaf and the later ones, and it is reported from ‘Alee and Ibn Mas’ood and Ibn ‘Abbaas and ‘Aaishah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhum), and it is likewise the saying of ‘Urwah bin az-Zubair and Abee Salamah bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan and Maalik and Abee Haneefah and Ahmad.’”[35]

 

What are the Signs Which Differentiate Between the Menses and Irregular (Non-Menstrual) Bleeding?

 

That which distinguishes between them are four signs:

The First: Is the colour; menstrual blood is dark, whilst irregular (non-menstrual) blood is (bright) red.

The Second: Is the thinness; menstrual blood is thick (dense) – repugnant, whilst irregular bleeding has thinness.

The Third: Is the smell; menstrual blood is putrid – disagreeable, whilst irregular bleeding is not putrid, because it is the usual blood of the vein.

The Fourth: Is the coagulation; menstrual blood does not clot if it appears, because it clotted in the womb, then it gushed out and flowed, hence it does not return a second time to clotting. Whilst irregular bleeding coagulates, because it is blood of the vein.[36]

 

The One Who has Irregular (Non-Menstrual) Bleeding has Three Situations

 

Shaikh Muhammad Saalih al-‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said likewise: “The one who has irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding has three situations:

The First Situation: Is that she has a menstrual period which is known before the irregular bleeding, so this one refers back to the period of time of her previous known menses and so she abstains (withholds) within it and hence the rulings of menstruation apply to her, anything other than it is irregular bleeding, the rulings of irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding apply to her.

An example of that is of a woman who would have a menstrual period of six days at the beginning of every month, then irregular bleeding comes upon her and so there is continuous bleeding. Her menstruation will therefore be of six days from the beginning of every month, and that which is other than it is irregular bleeding… On this basis the one who has irregular bleeding who has a known menstruation, then for the duration of her menses she remains as such, then she washes and prays and does not pay concern to the bleeding at that time.

The Second Situation: She does not have a known menstruation before the irregular bleeding, in that irregular bleeding is continuous with her from the initial time she saw blood from the start of her issue. This one acts in accordance to the ability to distinguish, so her menses are based upon what was distinguished from the darkness or putridity or smell, the rulings of menses will apply for that. As for other than it, then it is irregular bleeding, the rulings of irregular bleeding apply to it.

An example of that is a woman who sees blood initially, and it continues that way with her, however for ten days she notices it is dark, and the rest of the month it is red. Or she notices that for ten days it is putrid (thick) and the rest of the month it has thinness, or she notices that for ten days it has the smell of menstrual blood, and the rest of the month it has no smell. Thus her menses is based upon the darkness in the first example, and the putridity in the second example, and the smell in the third example. Anything other than that is irregular bleeding.

The Third Situation: She does not have a set/known menstrual period, nor any sound ability to distinguish whether it is irregular bleeding which has continuously come about from the initial time she saw blood, and her blood is of one characteristic, or of muddled characteristics which it is not possible to be a menstrual period. Then this one should act in accordance to the routine of most women, thus her menstrual period is of six or seven days from every month, it begins from the initial time in which she saw blood, and that which is besides it is irregular bleeding.

An example of that is that she sees blood, the first time she sees it is on the fifth of the month, and that continues with her without there being anything soundly distinguishable in it of menstrual period, not by way of colour nor other than it. So her menstrual period from every month will be six days or seven, it will begin from the fifth day of every month…

And so on, from the considerations, so if that which is closer is six she makes it six, and if that which is closer is seven, she makes it seven.”[37]

 

Scenarios Which Resemble Irregular Bleeding

 

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) mentioned: “A factor may occur upon a woman due to which blood necessarily flows from her vagina, such as an operation in the womb or in that which is other than it, these are of two types:

The First: Is that it is known that it is not possible for her to have a menstrual period after the operation, such as the operation being for the extraction of the womb in its entirety or for blocking it , so that no blood should descend from it. This woman cannot have the ruling of Istihaadhah (irregular [non-menstrual] bleeding) applied to her, rather her ruling is that of the one who sees yellow or brown discharge, or moisture (dampness) after having become cleansed.

Thus she is not to leave off the prayer nor the fasting, likewise there is no prohibition in her having sexual relations nor is it necessary to bathe from this blood, it is however necessary that she washes away the blood when praying. She should bind a cloth (pad) or its like over the vagina to inhibit the blood from coming out, then she should perform the wudhu for the prayer. Yet she should not perform the wudhu for it except after its time has entered – if it has a time for it such as the five daily prayers, otherwise it can be at the time of wishing to do so such as the general supererogatory prayers.

The Second: Is that its not being her menstrual period is not known after the operation, rather it is possible that she may have her menses, then this one; her ruling is the ruling of the Mustahaadhah (one who has irregular [non-menstrual] bleeding). That is proven by his saying (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to Faatimah bint Abee Hubaish:

((Rather, that is [from] a vein and is not menses, so when the menses comes, then leave off the prayer.))[38]

 

So his saying: ((so when the menses comes)) signifies that the ruling of the Mustahaadhah is for the one who may potentially have a menstrual period which comes and draws to a close, as for the one who does not have a potential menstrual period, then her blood is the blood of a vein in every case.”[39]

 

Questions and Important Points Related to the Issue of Bleeding and Fasting:

 

Q: Ascertaining the end of one’s menses just before the appearance of dawn

A: Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “If dawn appears and she is menstruating, then the fast will not be correct in her regard on that day, even if she becomes clean after the dawn by a short time.

If she becomes clean just before dawn, then she fasts, then her fast is correct, even if she does not wash herself until after the dawn.”[40]

 

Q: A woman starts bleeding during a pregnancy before her child-birth by five days during the month of Ramadhaan, is it menstrual blood or postnatal blood? And what is obligatory upon her?

A: The permanent committee of scholars said: If the affair is as it has been mentioned, from her seeing blood and she is pregnant before the delivery by five days, if she does not see a sign for the nearness of the delivery such as the pains and it is the labour pain, then it is not menstrual nor postnatal blood. Rather it is abnormal/spoiled blood in that which is correct. Based upon that she should not leave off the acts of worship, rather; she should fast and pray. If along with this bleeding there is a sign from the signs of the imminence of delivery by way of labour pain and its like, then it is postnatal blood, due to it she should leave off the prayer and the fasting. Then when she becomes cleansed from it after child-birth, she should make up for the fasts – not for the prayer.[41]

 

Q: Some women take tablets during the month of Ramadhaan without stopping so that the monthly excuse should not come upon them and so that they do not have to eat for a single day from the month of Ramadhaan, is this act correct?

Shaikh bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) said: I do not see any harm if they are not harmed by that, and I do not know of any objection to that, since they have a great advantage in fasting along with the people and not having to make up after that.[42]

 

Q: If the woman takes something which stops the bleeding, in the days of her postnatal bleeding or menstrual period, what is the ruling?

A: Shaikh bin Baaz (rahimahullaah) said: If the woman uses that which stops the bleeding from tablets or an injection, and so the bleeding stops due to that and she washes, then she should do just as the women upon a state of purification do, and her prayer is correct and her fasting is correct.[43]

 

Q: A woman has her menstrual period, on the sixth day the bleeding stops from the time of maghrib until midnight, she bathes on this day and fasts on the day after it. Then a brown discharge appears and she had fasted this day, is this considered to be from the menstrual period – despite the fact that her usual routine is that it remains for seven days?

A: Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: this brown discharge is not from the menstrual period, the brown discharge which comes upon a woman after her purification is not considered as anything. Umm ‘Atiyyah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhaa) said: ‘We never considered the brown and yellow discharge as anything, after having become cleansed.’[44] And in another report: ‘We never considered it as anything.’ [45] – And she did not mention after the purification. The menstrual period consists of blood – it is not a brown or yellow discharge, and so based upon this the fasting of this woman is correct, whether it be on the day she did not see the brown discharge, or on the day she did see the brown discharge, because this discharge is not menstrual period.[46]

 

Q: A woman had a routine of a five day menstrual-period, yet when she became older, the routine began to become prolonged upon her, and so if it comes (the bleeding), it continues for fourteen days, what is the ruling upon these additional days, should she fast?

A: Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: This woman who has grown older and her menstrual periods have become prolonged upon her a lot; so it comes upon her for fourteen days, then we say to her: these days – all of them are of menstruation.[47]

 

Q: During the course of her usual (menstrual) routine, a woman sees blood on a day, and the following day she does not see blood throughout the day, what is upon her to do?

A: Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “What is apparent is that this clear-up or dryness which came about for her during the days of her menstrual period are in succession to the menstruation – so it is not considered a purification. Based upon this, she remains prohibited from that which the menstruating woman is prohibited from, some of the people of knowledge have said: whoever sees blood on a day and clearness on a day, then the blood is menstruation and the clearness is purification, until it reaches fifteen days, if it reaches fifteen days then whatever is after it is irregular (non-menstrual) blood. This is well known from the Madhab of Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahimahullaah).”[48]

 

Q: If the blood becomes ambiguous for a woman, such that she cannot distinguish if it is menstrual blood or irregular bleeding or other than it, what then should she consider it?

A: Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: The origin in the blood which is emanated from the woman is that it is menstrual blood, until it becomes clear that it is irregular (non-menstrual) blood. Based upon this she should consider it as menstrual blood for as long as it does not become clear that it is irregular blood.[49]

 

والله تعالى أعلم

 

_____________________________

[1] As mentioned by Shaikh Muhammad bin Saalih al-‘Uthaimeen in Sharh al-Mumti’ (1/506), the Shaikh mentioned in addition: “And some of them (i.e. the scholars) add a fourth type of bleeding: ‘Dam al-Fasaad’ abnormal/spoiled blood, and some of them incorporate abnormal/spoiled blood into irregular (non-menstrual) bleeding.”

[2] Afnaan an-Nadiyyah 1/305

[3] Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/464

[4] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.304) and Muslim (no.238) with similar wording, and the wording above is that of Al-Bukhaaree

[5] Sharh Saheeh Muslim 3/250

[6] Shaikh Zaid bin Haadi al-Madkhali (rahimahullaah) said: “The one who is menstruating or has postnatal bleeding not being permitted to fast is established through clear textual evidence, not by way of analogy which is divergent in its point of view as a proof.” (See: Afnaan an-Nadiyyah 1/324)

[7] See footnote 4

[8] Mawsu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah 18/318

[9] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.321) and Muslim (no.759 & 761)

[10] Mawsu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah 18/318

[11] See footnote 4

[12] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.321) and Muslim (no.759 & 761)

[13] Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/475-476 (abridged)

[14] Majmu’ Fataawa 25/249-251 (abridged)

[15] Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/476

[16] Point of benefit: Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said regarding this white discharge: “The sign of purification is known amongst the women, and it is a white fluid that comes out once the menstrual period stops. Some women do not have this fluid, so she remains until the second menstrual period without seeing this fluid. So the sign of her having become cleansed is that if she inserts some white cotton, meaning; she enters it to the place of the menstruation, then she takes it out and it does not change, then it is a sign of her having become cleansed.” (See: Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/498)

[17] Buhooth Fiqhiyyah fee Qadhaayaa ‘Asriyyah p.182

[18] Reported with this wording by Aboo Dawood (no.307) and Ibn Maajah (no.653) and was declared Saheeh (authentic) by Shaikh Al-Albaanee in his Saheeh Sunan Abee Dawood (no.307). It is reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.326) but without the wording: “after having become cleansed.”

[19] Buhooth Fiqhiyyah fee Qadhaayaa ‘Asriyyah p.182

[20] Al-Mawsu’ah al-Baaziyyah fee Masaa-il an-Nisaa-iyyah 2/867

[21] That which it permits: such as taking pleasure but not in the vagina.

That which it forbids: such as sexual relations and fasting.

That which it obligates: such as the bathing once it ceases.

That which falls away: such as the prayer. (See: Haashiyah ‘alaa Umdatul Fiqh of Shaikh Al-Bassaam p.25)

[22] Umdatul Fiqh p.25

[23] Al-Mughni 1/362

[24] Nayl al-Awtaar 2/491

[25] Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/516

[26] Majmu’ Fataawa 10/225-226

[27] Buhooth Fiqhiyyah fee Qadhaayaa ‘Asriyyah p.188.

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said: “The predominant view is that if that which has returned is postnatal blood due to its colour and smell and all of its circumstances, then one is in no doubt concerning it, rather it is blood which is known – and it is postnatal bleeding, then she does not fast nor does she pray, and she should make up for the fast and not for the prayer. Yet if she knows through indications that it is not postnatal bleeding, then she takes the ruling of those that are of purity, she fasts and prays and there is no making up for her to do.” (See: Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/515)

[28] Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa-imah 5/417

[29] Buhooth Fiqhiyyah  fee Qadhaayaa ‘Asriyyah p.184

[30] Sharh Saheeh Muslim 4/242

[31] Majmu’ Fataawa 15/195

[32] Reported by Aboo Dawood (no.287) and At-Tirmidhee (no.128) and was declared Hasan (sound) by Shaikh Al-Albaanee in his Saheeh Sunan At-Tirmidhee (no.128). The order of the wording in both references differs slightly from that which is above.  Shaikh Al-Albaanee explains the meaning of his saying (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): ((Then use a bridle restraint)): “Meaning: make a cloth like that of the bridle of a horse, meaning: tie the area of the bleeding with the cloth.” (See: Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah 1/193)

[33] Reported by Aboo Dawood (no.280) Ibn Maajah (no.513) and Ahmad (no.25681) and was declared Saheeh (authentic) by Shaikh Al-Albaanee in his Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (no.513) – except for the addition of: ((even if the blood drops onto the mat.)) this addition the Shaikh mentioned is Da’eef (weak) as he pointed out in his Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (no.513) as well as in Irwa al-Ghaleel (no.208), see the Shaikh’s discussion of this hadeeth likewise in Irwa under hadeeth no.109.

[34] Risaalah fid-Dimaa at-Tabee’iyyah lin-Nisaa p.17-20 (abridged)

[35] Fataawa wa Rasaa-il Samaahah ash-Shaikh Muhammad bin Ibraheem 2/100-101 (abridged)

[36] Sharh al-Mumti’ 1/487-488

[37] Risaalah fid-Dimaa at-Tabee’iyyah lin-Nisaa p.17-19

[38] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.306) and Muslim (no.751)

[39] Risaalah fid-Dimaa at-Tabee’iyyah lin-Nisaa p.19

[40] Risaalah fid-Dimaa at-Tabee’iyyah lin-Nisaa p.11

[41] Mujallah al-Buhooth al-Islaamiyyah 25/43

[42] Majmu’ Fataawa 15/200-201

[43] Majmu’ Fataawa 15/200

[44] See footnote 18

[45] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (no.326)

[46] Majmu’ Fataawa 19/105

[47] Majmu’ Fataawa 19/256

[48] Al-Fataawa al-Jaami’ah lil-Mar-ah al-Muslimah 1/77-78

[49] Al-Fataawa al-Jaami’ah lil-Mar-ah al-Muslimah 1/83

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