Upon Arriving at The Very End of The Jumu’ah Prayer; Does One Go On To Complete it as a Jumu’ah or as a Dhuhr Prayer?

 

Regarding the issue of a person arriving at the Masjid to find that the congregation has completed the two rak’ahs for the Jumu’ah prayer and are in the Tashahud and so he enters the rows and joins them in the prayer. Once the Imaam has given the Tasleem for the end of the prayer; he would stand up to complete and so make up for the rak’ahs he had missed whilst not having been with the congregation. Since he did not catch a rak’ah of the Jumu’ah prayer; does he now complete the prayer as a Jumu’ah prayer and so prays two rak’ahs or does he complete the prayer as a Dhuhr prayer and so prays four rak’ahs?

The difference in this issue revolves around two opinions for this matter:

 

The First: That whoever arrives for the Jumuah prayer and joins the Imaam in the Tashahud; then he should complete praying it as a Dhuhr prayer. This is due to the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in which he said:

 

((Whoever attains a rak’ah from the Jumu’ah [prayer]; then he has attained the prayer)).

 

Therefore the one who attains less than a rak’ah should complete it as a Dhuhr prayer. This is because the above hadeeth indicates that the Jumu’ah prayer is not attained with less than the attainment of a rak’ah.

An-Nawawee said in Al-Majmoo 4/555:

“Whoever enters and the Imaam is already in the prayer; then he should enter into it. If he attains a rak’ah with him in the second rak’ah then he has attained the Jumu’ah prayer; and so when the Imaam gives the Tasleem he should add another rak’ah to it. If however he does not attain the rukoo’ – then he has lost out on the Jumu’ah prayer; and so when the Imaam gives the Tasleem he should complete it as a Dhuhr prayer due to that which has been reported on the authority of Aboo Hurairah (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) who said that the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:

 

((Whoever attains a rak’ah from the Jumu’ah [prayer]; then let him add another one to it)). Reported by Al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak”

 

Imaam Ibn Qudaamah Al-Maqdisee said in Al-Kaafee 1/217:

“The madhab is in no difference in that if the one who arrives in time attains the rukoo’ along with the Imaam in the second rak’ah – that he should complete it as a Jumu’ah (prayer). If he attains less than that; then he does not complete it as a Jumu’ah (prayer).”

Aboo Ja’far  Ahmad bin Muhammad At-Tahaawee mentioned a number of Scholars from the Salaf who held this opinion in his Mukhtasar Ikhtilaaf Al-‘Ulamaa 1/335-336:

“Maalik [bin Anas] and Al-Hasan bin Hayy and [Sufyaan] Ath-Thawree and Ash-Shaafi’ee say that he should pray four… (i.e. complete the prayer as a Dhuhr prayer).”

 

The Second: Is that whoever reaches the Jumu’ah prayer whilst the Imaam is in the Tashahud; then he should complete praying it as a Jumu’ah prayer. This is the opinion held by the Hanafees and there is a report from Imaam Ahmad to its effect. It is mentioned in Al-Hidaayah 2/65:

“Whoever reaches the Imaam on the day of Jumu’ah whilst he is in the rukoo’ and is in the second rak’ah; then he has unanimously attained it. If he reaches him after he (the Imaam) has raised his head from the rukoo’ then it is likewise with Abee Haneefah and Abee Yusuf and so he completes it as a Jumu’ah prayer due to his saying Allaah’s Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

 

((Whatever you reach; then pray [it] and whatever you have missed; then make up for it))

 

(See: Ru-oos Masaa-il Al-Khilaafiyyah by Al-‘Akbaree 1/265 for further reading.)

 

Statements and Fatawaa of Some of the Latter Day Scholars Regarding This Issue:

 

Shaikh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez bin Baaz:

When asked about a man who arrives for the Jumu’ah prayer to find that the congregational prayer for Jumu’ah has ended the Shaikh (rahimahullaah) replied:

“It is obligatory that he completes the prayer as a Dhuhr prayer because if he did not attain anything from the Jumu’ah prayer then it has ceased. It is attained by a single rak’ah along with the Imaam, therefore if he attains the second rak’ah along with the Imaam then he completes praying it as a Jumu’ah prayer. If however he does not arrive until after the tasleem or after the second rak’ah in the Tashahud or when they are in prostration in the second rak’ah – then he does not complete praying it as a Jumu’ah prayer. Instead he prays it as a Dhuhr prayer due to the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

 

((Whoever attains a rak’ah from the Jumu’ah [prayer]; then let him add another one to it – and indeed his prayer is complete)). (Reported by At-Tirmidhee).

 

Therefore its understanding is that if one does not attain except less than a rak’ah; then he has not attained Jumu’ah and instead prays it as Dhuhr. This is what is legislated – that one prays it as Dhuhr and not as Jumu’ah. It should also be noted that this should be done after the zawaal[1].” (Fatawaa Noorun ‘alad-Darb 2/1040)

 

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen:

Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah) said in Sharh Al-Mumti’ 5/47:

“If one arrives after the Imaam has raised his head from the second rukoo’ then here he has not attained a rak’ah – so he should complete it as a Dhuhr prayer…”

The Shaikh (rahimahullaah) said likewise as is found in his Majmu’ Fatawaa 16/78:

“If a person arrives and the Imaam is in Tashahud during the Jumu’ah prayer; then he has missed out on the Jumu’ah prayer. So he should enter the prayer with the Imaam and pray Dhuhr as four (rak’ahs) because he has missed out on the Jumu’ah prayer due to the saying of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):

 

((Whoever attains a rak’ah from the prayer; then he has attained the prayer)) (Reported by Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim).

 

Therefore its understanding is that whoever attains less than that does not attain the prayer.”

An important point of benefit highlighted by Shaikh ‘Uthaimeen:

The Shaikh also stated:

“To complete it as a Dhuhr prayer one should intend the Dhuhr prayer – and ensure its time has indeed entered. We have added this as a condition because there is a possibility that the Jumu’ah prayer may have been prayed before the zawaal. Therefore if it is prayed before the zawaal and he attains less than a rak’ah then he cannot complete praying it as a Dhuhr prayer. Rather he should complete praying it as a Naafilah, then once the time for Dhuhr has entered he prays the Dhuhr prayer.

Therefore it is conditional upon the one who attains less than a rak’ah with the Imaam that he completes it as a Dhuhr prayer with the following two conditions:

1 – That he intends to pray the Dhuhr prayer.

2 – That the time for Dhuhr has entered.”

(See:  Sharh Al-Mumti’ 5/47)

 

Shaikh Fawzaan:

Regarding the hadeeth:

 

((Whoever attains a rak’ah from the Jumu’ah [prayer]; then let him add another one to it – and indeed his prayer is complete)).

 

Shaikh Fawzaan (hafidhahullaah) said in his Tas-heel Al-Ilmaam bi Fiqh Ahadeeth min Buloogh Al-Maraam 2/513:

“This hadeeth proves that the Jumu’ah prayer is attained with the attainment of a rak’ah, so whoever attains a rak’ah of the prayer in that he has caught the rak’ah along with the Imaam before he (the Imaam) raises his head from the rukoo’ of the final rak’ah – then he has attained this prayer. Therefore once the Imaam gives the Tasleem; he should stand and perform a rak’ah and so Jumu’ah would be completed for him.

It also indicates from its understanding that whoever attains less than a rak’ah – then he has not attained the Jumu’ah prayer. So he should enter along with the Imaam in that which is remaining – and it is less than a rak’ah and should intend to pray it as Dhuhr. That is on the basis of two conditions:

  1. That he intends to pray it as Dhuhr.
  2. That the time of Dhuhr has indeed entered.

Then it will be Dhuhr in his right.”

 


[1] The Zawaal is commonly mistaken as the meridian or when the sun it at its zenith. However it is when the sun had just passed the middle of the sky and so the shadows on the ground begin to lengthen once more after they had shortened. The Scholars are unanimous that the time for the Dhuhr prayer enters when the sun abates from the middle of the sky; and it is when the sun declines away from the middle of the sky in a westerly direction. (See: Mawsoo’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah 26/54 & Al-Qaamoos Al-Fiqhee p.161)

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